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Microwave Ablation for Thyroid Nodule

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What is Microwave ablation of thyroid nodule?

Microwave ablation of thyroid nodules is a safe procedure with low complication rates. It is generally well-tolerated by patients. The procedure is performed under ultrasound guidance, which allows for precise targeting of the nodule and minimizes the risk of damage to surrounding structures, such as the recurrent laryngeal nerve or parathyroid glands. The use of local anesthesia also reduces discomfort during the procedure. Most patients experience only mild post-procedure discomfort, such as neck soreness or swelling, which typically resolves within a few days. However, as with any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, including infection, bleeding, thyroid dysfunction, voice changes, and temporary or permanent damage to surrounding structures. It’s important to discuss the potential benefits and risks of microwave ablation with your healthcare provider to determine if it’s a suitable treatment option for your specific case.

Quick summary:

  • About Thyroid Nodules
  • Minimally invasive surgery:Microwave ablation.
  • Why choose Jaipur, India for Microwave ablation.
  • Factors That Affect Microwave ablation.
  • Myths about microwave ablation.
  • Complications of Microwave ablation.
  • Role of interventional radiologist in ablation.
  • Benefits and risks of microwave ablation.
  • Blood flow evaluations inside the nodules.
  • Microwave ablation, laser ablation, and radiofrequency ablation

The Full Story

Introduction to Thyroid nodules

Thyroid nodules are abnormal growths or lumps that develop on the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland at the front of the neck. These nodules are mostly noncancerous, however they may sometimes be malignant. Thyroid nodules may range in size from hardly perceptible to easily palpable. Most people with a thyroid nodule won’t have any symptoms, however some people may sense a bump in their neck, have trouble swallowing, or notice a change in their voice.

Benefits of Microwave ablation of thyroid nodule

  • Microwave ablation is conducted by a small pin hole in the skin, making it a minimally invasive surgery. In comparison to more conventional surgical methods, this technique causes less damage to surrounding tissues and allows for fewer incisions and scarring.
  • When compared to surgical excision of the thyroid gland, which might be partial or complete, microwave ablation retains both healthy thyroid tissue and function. 
  • Individuals with healthy thyroid function or those at risk for thyroid hormone abnormalities benefit greatly from this.
  • In most cases, patients undergoing microwave ablation are able to go home the same day they had the operation (i.e., it is an outpatient treatment). This is convenient since it eliminates the need for a lengthy hospital stay or recuperation time.
  • Microwave ablation has been found to successfully shrink thyroid nodules with a high rate of success. Researchers found that nodules shrank significantly in most individuals who were treated. The operation has a high percentage of success in delivering the promised benefits, such as symptom alleviation and nodule size reduction.
  • Those whose thyroid nodules are producing uncomfortable symptoms including trouble swallowing, pressure, or discomfort may find relief via microwave ablation. Symptoms related to the nodule might be reduced or eliminated altogether when the surgery is performed.
  • In most cases, the recovery period after microwave ablation is much shorter than that following surgery. As a result, many patients are able to go back to work or school within a day or two after their treatment.
  • Microwave ablation is associated with an extremely low risk of adverse events. Ultrasound guiding is used during the surgery because it improves accuracy of aiming and decreases collateral harm. Infrequent but possible side effects include moderate pain and brief changes in voice.

Procedure for Microwave ablation of thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodules may be treated using microwave ablation, a minimally invasive therapy. An outline of the process is as follows:


You will be put in a relaxed posture on an examination table before the treatment begins, usually resting on your back with your neck extended. The region around the neck, which is generally the treatment area, will be cleansed and sterilized.


In order to render the skin and subcutaneous tissues numb, local anesthetic will be used. Because of this, you won’t have to worry about feeling too much pain throughout the process.

Needle Insertion:

Thyroid nodules may be safely and effectively accessed with transcutaneous needle insertion under real-time ultrasound guidance. The ultrasound is used to guide the needle and ensure it is inserted precisely into the nodule.

Energy Delivery:

After the needle has been positioned appropriately inside the nodule, microwave radiation is sent through it. The targeted tissue within the nodule is heated to a temperature at which it can be destroyed by the microwave radiation, which is converted into heat. The nodule will either shrink or disappear altogether as a result of the heat damaging its cellular structure. Pulsed or cyclical delivery of microwave radiation is common practice to avoid overheating.


To maximize therapeutic efficacy and limit collateral harm to unaffected tissues, the internal temperature of the nodule is continuously monitored during the process. In order to get the best possible result with the fewest possible difficulties, real-time monitoring is essential.

Completion of Treatment:

The size and composition of the nodule dictate how long the microwave radiation is applied. The microwave radiation is stopped being delivered and the needle is gently withdrawn after the desired effect has been achieved.

After the Procedure:

The region around your neck may feel uncomfortable, swell, or bruise after the surgery. Fortunately, this is generally just a transient problem that may be treated with over-the-counter medication. Specific instructions for post-procedure care, such as activity limits and pain management suggestions, may be provided by your healthcare professional.


Your doctor will want to check in with you again after your microwave ablation treatment to see how you’re doing and make any necessary adjustments. Depending on the findings of the follow-up assessments, further therapies or evaluations may be suggested.

Complications of Microwave ablation

Although there are no known serious adverse effects from microwave ablation, it does have some risks. These risks should be considered before deciding on microwave ablation as a treatment option for thyroid nodules.

  • Mild pain, discomfort, or soreness in the treated region is possible after the operation. Over-the-counter pain relievers should be sufficient for this transient condition.
  • After microwave ablation, it is usual to have swelling and bruising at the treatment site. Usually, a week or less is all it takes for these symptoms to go away on their own.
  • Due to the thyroid gland's closeness to the vocal cords, there is a remote possibility of experiencing transitory voice alterations. This may cause hoarseness or a weakened voice, but it should go away within a few weeks. Sometimes a shift in voice might be more long-lasting than usual.
  • Minor burn risk exists at the insertion site from the heat created during the process. However, doctors and nurses take measures to monitor temperatures and ensure accurate needle insertion to lessen the likelihood of complications.
  • The insertion location of the needle has a negligible risk of bleeding or hematoma (a collection of blood). This is normally not serious, but if it persists or worsens, you should see a doctor.
  • Despite how uncommon it is, each time the skin is broken, the danger of infection increases. The use of sterile methods throughout the operation helps to reduce this danger. After the surgery, you should call your doctor if you suffer any worsening symptoms like discomfort, redness, or fever.
  • It is possible that the thyroid nodule can return or that the ablation therapy will not be successful in all patients. Because of this, the nodule may return, necessitating another intervention.
  • Unintentional harm to surrounding structures, such as blood vessels, nerves, or the windpipe, is possible but unlikely. Such difficulties may be avoided with the use of ultrasound guidance.


Thyroid nodules are normally diagnosed after a thorough study of the patient’s medical history, physical examination, imaging testing, and sometimes other diagnostic techniques. Thyroid nodule diagnosis often entails the following steps:

  1. Symptoms, family history of thyroid issues, and other potential risk factors will be discussed with your doctor at the first consultation and physical exam. They will feel around your neck for any abnormalities or nodules in your thyroid gland during the physical examination.
  1. Thyroid nodules are often evaluated using ultrasound, a standard imaging test. It helps figure out the size, quantity, and features of the nodules by providing comprehensive pictures of the thyroid gland. Blood flow evaluations inside the nodules are also possible using ultrasound. Additional information about the nodules or surrounding structures may be gleaned from other imaging procedures, such as a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  1. Thyroid nodule cell samples are often obtained using fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, which is a popular operation. A tiny needle is guided into the nodule using ultrasonography to remove cells or fluid for pathological analysis.The biopsy aids in identifying if the nodule is benign, malignant, or ambiguous. Decisions on future treatment are based on findings from the FNA biopsy.
  1. The biopsy sample may undergo molecular testing to evaluate certain genetic abnormalities or mutations linked to thyroid cancer. This may be used as supplementary data in making diagnoses and formulating treatment strategies. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and triiodothyronine (T3) levels may be determined using a battery of blood tests called “thyroid function tests.” Thyroid hormone abnormalities may be diagnosed and thyroid function evaluated using these assays.

Treatments Available

Thyroid nodules may be treated in a number of ways, with the chosen method depending on the patient’s symptoms, nodule size/characteristics, and general health. One option is to simply keep an eye on any small, asymptomatic nodules that may develop over time. Thyroid nodules can be reduced in size and symptoms mitigated with the help of thyroid hormone suppressive therapy or levothyroxine. 

In the case of hyperthyroidism, radioactive iodine therapy can be used to specifically target and destroy overactive thyroid tissue within nodules. Some nodules can be shrunk in size through a process called “thyroid hormone withdrawal,” which involves temporarily stopping thyroid hormone replacement medication. In addition to its diagnostic use, fine needle aspiration biopsy may be used to inject fluid or medicine into the nodule, causing it to shrink. Larger nodules, those causing symptoms, and those raising concerns about malignancy may all lead doctors to urge a thyroidectomy (surgical removal of the thyroid gland). 

Alcohol ablation, Microwave ablation, laser ablation, and radiofrequency ablation are all minimally invasive treatments that may destroy thyroid nodules with precision while leaving healthy tissue unharmed. A thorough review of the nodules’ individual features and a shared decision-making process between the patient and healthcare professional establish the best course of action.

Why choose Jaipur, India for Microwave ablation of thyroid nodule?

Thyroid nodule microwave ablation in Jaipur, India is highly recommended for a number of reasons. Thyroid diseases and minimally invasive surgeries are two areas where the city’s medical community excels. Jaipur’s cutting-edge hospitals are stocked with cutting-edge equipment, guaranteeing first-rate treatment. Because of its reputation for economical medical care, Jaipur is a popular destination for those in need of treatment. Patients may combine their medical care with a visit to Jaipur’s ancient sites and bustling marketplaces, since the city is a major tourist destination and medical hub. Patients requiring microwave ablation of thyroid nodules may find all of these things in Jaipur.

Factors That Affect Microwave ablation of thyroid nodule Treatment Cost

Several variables affect how much money has to be spent on microwave ablation to treat a thyroid nodule. Healthcare prices vary widely from country to country and region to area. The cost of medical care may also be affected by factors such as the patient’s location and the level of experience of the attending medical staff. Costs may increase due to additional diagnostic tests and preoperative treatments like ultrasounds and biopsies. Thyroid nodule size, location, and features may all add to the complexity of a case, which in turn can affect the final price tag. It’s crucial to talk to doctors and find out what variables affect the price of therapy for your unique case.