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Beginners guide to prostate artery embolization (PAE)

Home  /  Beginners guide to prostate artery embolization (PAE)

What is prostate artery embolization (PAE)?

In recent years, prostate artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as a promising alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) because of its low risk and short recovery time. An enlarged prostate gland causes the symptoms of BPH, which include a frequent desire to pee, a reduction in urine flow, and difficulty emptying the bladder.

Quick summary:

  • About Prostate Artery Embolization
  • Who is more likely to get this?
  • Treatment for enlarged prostate
  • Straining to urinate
  • Blood in the urine
  • Risk factors of PAE.
  • Risk Factors for Enlarged Prostate
  • Health insurance and prostate artery embolization
  • What happens during Prostatic Artery Embolization
  • Minimal invasive treatment

The Full Story

Symptoms of enlarged prostate

  • Slow or delay in the start of the urinary stream.
  • Straining to urinate
  • A urine flow that is either weak or intermittent
  • Dribbling at the end of urination.
  • Failure of complete bladder Emptying
  • Constant, pressing desire to urinate
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Elevated nocturnal urination, that adversely affects sleep
  • Needing to urinate 2 or more times per night.
  • Blood in the urine
  • Urinary tract infections

When to See a Doctor for enlarged prostate

In case you suspect any enlarged prostate (also known as Benign prostatic hyperplasia), it is necessary to visit a doctor for a proper evaluation. Some of the warning indications that it’s time to see the doctor are as follows:

  • Hesitating to pee, weak urine flow, frequent urination (particularly at night), eagerness to urinate, sense of incomplete emptying of the bladder, dribbling at the conclusion of urination, or soreness or discomfort during urination.
  • Hematuria, or blood in the urine, is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate medical treatment. Although an enlarged prostate is often harmless, the presence of blood in the urine may indicate the presence of another, more dangerous ailment.
  • Multiple UTIs or continued symptoms after therapy should prompt a visit to the doctor for a full assessment of the cause(s) of your recurrent UTIs. Back discomfort, flank pain, and incontinence might all be indicators of kidney issues caused by an enlarged prostate and should prompt a visit to the doctor.

Risk Factors for Enlarged Prostate

There are some risk factors that can elevate the likelihood of growing enlarged prostate, these may include-

Age: The enlarged prostate is very common in older men. As males age, the risk of developing BPH heightens. It can be easily seen that by the age of 60, over fifty percent of males will have the chance of getting an enlarged prostate. Further, this increases to 90% by the age of 80.


Lifestyle: An enlarged prostate may be caused in part by one’s way of life. A diet heavy in red meat and fat is one of these factors, along with obesity and insufficient exercise. Choosing a poor lifestyle may exacerbate BPH symptoms.


Hormones: The change in the level of testosterone and estrogen plays a significant role in the development of the prostate. As with time and age, the level of testosterone reduces and the level of estrogen rises, contributing to the growth of BPH.


Other Health Conditions: There may be an increased risk of enlargement of the prostate in men who have cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure.

How much of India's population suffers from an enlarged prostate?

The widespread presence of BPH seems to increase with age. Being the larger section of India’s population is deemed to be of older age, it is most likely that a large number of males are affected by this condition. 


As per the study, the presence of BPH in the nation is estimated to be around 26.7% among males who are aged 50 years and above. However, the percentage is a little higher in some specific regions of India. 


Well, it is significant to know that the commonness of BPH may differ depending upon the regions and they might not represent the entire population of the country. Moreover, the number of BPH are underreported due to limited access to healthcare and awareness among people.


The doctor will inquire as to the nature, severity, and duration of your urinary problems, as well as their effect on your quality of life. In addition, they may question whether you have tried any other therapies or drugs in the past.


The physical examination may determine the prostate’s size, shape, and consistency by the use of a digital rectal exam (DRE). A DRE involves the physician placing a gloved finger into the rectum to palpate the prostate gland for abnormalities.


Ultrasound test to detect size of prostate and variable changes in morphology along with information about kidneys and urinary bladder. In a few cases transrectal ultrasound is to be done for exact size, known as TRUS.


It is possible to screen for infections and other illnesses that might produce similar symptoms by analyzing a patient’s urine. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland, in the blood. BPH and other prostate problems might be indicated by abnormally high PSA readings.


The intensity of urinary symptoms related to BPH may be measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). The questionnaire covers topics such as nocturia (rising up in the middle of the night to pee), poor urine flow, and how often you urinate. What effect BPH has on your daily life will be determined by your replies.

What happens during Prostatic Artery Embolization?

  • An IR is a medical professional who carries out PAE procedures. An interventional radiologist is a medical professional who, instead of resorting to open surgery, utilizes X-rays and other imaging procedures to diagnose and treat patients.
  • Anatomical landmarks may be established by inserting a Foley catheter (a thin, hollow tube kept in place by a balloon at the end) into the urethra and into the bladder.
  • Your interventional radiologist will do PAE by inserting a catheter into an artery in your wrist or groin. The catheter will then be threaded into your prostate's blood vessels by the interventional radiologist.
  • The blood arteries supplying your prostate are mapped using an arteriogram (a kind of X-ray in which dye is injected into the blood vessels).
  • Through the catheter, tiny spherical microspheres (particles) are inserted into the blood channels that feed your prostate, cutting off blood flow to the organ.
  • The interventional radiologist will reposition the catheter and repeat the procedure on the other side of your prostate.
  • Within a few days following the surgery, the prostate will begin to shrink, alleviating and improving symptoms


  1. Maintain a healthy weight by actively engaging in physical exercise on a regular basis. Those who exercise on a regular basis have a lesser chance of developing BPH.
  2. Eat plenty of colorful produce, healthy grains, and lean meats. Restrict your consumption of foods high in sugar, saturated fat, and processed ingredients. 
  3. Nighttime urinary symptoms may be alleviated by avoiding fluids, especially coffee, and alcohol, in the hours leading up to sleep. This may reduce nocturia (nighttime urinating).
  4. Urinary symptoms might be exacerbated by drugs that irritate the bladder. Some examples include alcoholic beverages, coffee, meals high in capsaicin, and sugar substitutes. Reducing or eliminating your intake of these drugs might help reduce your symptoms.
  5. Don’t hold your breath or strain when you urinate; instead, be sure to empty your bladder entirely. Urinary retention and other consequences from BPH may be avoided with the aid of the aforementioned behaviors.
  6. The condition of your prostate may be monitored with periodic visits to your doctor if you’ve noticed any new or different urinary problems.

Treatments Available

Currently, there are numerous treatment options available for BPH, which are as follows-

1. Medication

  • Alpha Blockers
  • 5-Alpha reductase inhibitors
  • Combination therapy

2. Minimally invasive procedures

  • Prostate artery embolization (PAE)
  • Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT)
  • Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA)
  • Water-induced thermotherapy (WIT)
  • Prostatic urethral lift (UroLift)

3. Surgical Procedures

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
  • Laser surgery
  • Open prostatectomy

The type of treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, size of the prostate, health, and lastly preference of the patient. It is suggested to discuss the options for treatment with your doctor in order to determine the appropriate method for your treatment.

Why choose Jaipur, India for prostate artery embolization treatment?

Jaipur is known to be home to renowned hospitals and medical centers that comprise an experienced team of healthcare professionals in PAE. These medical professionals have extensive knowledge and expertise in the latest techniques. 


High-quality healthcare facilities along with state-of-art equipment are what Jaipur boasts. Several hospitals in the city have advanced imaging technologies and dedicated departments for urology that make sure you have proper diagnosis and treatment. 


In some nations, there are long waiting times for procedures like PAE. Choosing treatment in Jaipur might help in receiving timely medical attention while having faster access to the required procedures.

Factors That Affect prostate artery embolization Treatment Cos

The cost of prostate artery embolization can get influenced by various factors. One of them is the hospital or medical centers which can influence the cost. Costs might be higher in hospitals with state-of-the-art equipment, dedicated urology departments, and highly trained staff. The cost may also be affected by factors such as the medical center’s location, the patient’s insurance coverage, and the number and kind of embolic materials employed. Finally, the amount a person must pay out of cash for PAE might change depending on their insurance policy and reimbursement guidelines. Before making any final choices, patients should speak with their healthcare professionals, acquire individualized cost estimates, and learn everything they can about the variables affecting the cost of treatment.

Is prostate artery embolization treatment Cost Covered Under Health Insurance?

The extent to which a patient’s health insurance covers therapy for prostate artery embolization varies by insurance provider and plan. Some medical insurance policies may pay all or part of the cost of PAE if the procedure is deemed medically essential and meets specific requirements. 


If you have health insurance, call your physician ahead of time to be sure that PAE therapy is covered under your policy. This may help people understand their healthcare costs and make well-informed choices about their treatment alternatives.

Advantages of PAE Treatment

  • Minimally invasive treatment
  • Short recovery period
  • Reduces the potential for retrograde bladder leakage
  • Eradicates the need for a bladder catheter
  • No sexual side effects
  • Reduced pain during and after surgery.